Software Testing Series: Black Box vs White Box Testing


Should I use black box testing or white box testing for my software?

You will hear three answers to this question – black, white, and gray. We recently published a foundation series post on black box and white box testing – which serves as a good background document. We also mention greybox (or gray box) testing as a layered approach to combining both disciplines.

Given those definitions, let’s look at the pros and cons of each style of testing.

Black box software testing

Black box


  • The focus is on the goals of the software with a requirements-validation approach to testing. Thanks Roger for pointing that out on the previous post. These tests are most commonly used for functional testing.
  • Easier to staff a team. We don’t need software developers or other experts to perform these tests (note: expertise is required to identify which tests to run, etc). Manual testers are also easier to find at lower rates than developers – presenting an opportunity to save money, or test more, or both.


  • Higher maintenance cost with automated testing. Application changes tend to break black-box tests, because of their reliance on the constancy of the interface.
  • Redundancy of tests. Without insight into the implementation, the same code paths can get tested repeatedly, while others are not tested at all.

White box software testing

White box


  • More efficient automated testing. Unit tests can be defined that isolate particular areas of the code, and they can be tested independently. This enables faster test suite processing
  • More efficient debugging of problems. When a regression error is introduced during development, the source of the error can be more efficiently found – the tests that identify an error are closely related (or directly tied) to the troublesome code. This reduces the effort required to find the bug.
  • A key component of TDD. Test driven development (an Agile practice) depends upon the creation of tests during the development process – implicitly dependent upon knowledge of the implementation. Unit tests are also a critical element for continuous integration.


  • Harder to use to validate requirements. White box tests incorporate (and often focus on) how something is implemented, not why it is implemented. Since product requirements express “full system” outputs, black box tests are better suited to validating requirements. Carefull white box tests can be designed to test requirements.
  • Hard to catch misinterpretation of requirements. Developers read the requirements. They also design the tests. If they implement the wrong idea in the code because the requirement is ambiguous, the white box test will also check for the wrong thing. Specifically, the developers risk testing that the wrong requirement is properly implemented.
  • Hard to test unpredictable behavior. Users will do the strangest things. If they aren’t anticipated, a white box test won’t catch them. I recently saw this with a client, where a bug only showed up if the user visited all of the pages in an application (effectively caching them) before going back to the first screen to enter values in the controls.
  • Requires more expertise and training. Before someone can run tests that utilize knowledge of the implementation, that person needs to learn about how the software is implemented.

Which testing approach should we use?

There is also the concept of gray box testing, or layered testing – using both black box and white box techniques to balance the pros and cons for a project. We have seen this approach work very effectively for larger teams. Developers utilize white box tests to prevent submission of bugs to a testing team that uses black box tests to validate that requirements have been met (and to perform system level testing). This approach also allows for a mixture of manual and automated testing. Any continuous integration strategy should utilize both forms of testing.
Weekend reading (links with more links warning):

White box vs. black box testing by Grig Gheorghiu. Includes links to a debate and examples.

Black box testing by Steve Rowe.

A case study of effective black box testing from the Agile Testing blog

Benefits of automated testing from the Quality Assurance and Automated Testing blog

What book should I read to learn more?

Software Testing, by Ron Patton (the eBook version, which is cheaper).

Here’s a review from Randy Rice “Software Testing Consultant & Trainer” (Oklahoma City, OK)

Software Testing is a book oriented toward people just entering or considering the testing field, although there are nuggets of information that even seasoned professionals will find helpful. Perhaps the greatest value of this book would be a resource for test team leaders to give to their new testers or test interns. To date, I haven?t seen a book that gives a better introduction to software testing with this amount of coverage. Ron Patton has written this book at a very understandable level and gives practical examples of every test type he discusses in the book. Plus, Patton uses examples that are accessible to most people, such as basic Windows utilities.

I like the simplicity and practicality of this book. There are no complex formulas or processes to confuse the reader that may be getting into testing for the first time. However, the important of process is discussed. I also have to say a big THANK YOU to Ron Patton for drawing the distinction between QA and testing! Finally, the breadth of coverage in Software Testing is super. Patton covers not only the most important topics, such as basic functional testing, but also attribute testing, such as usability and compatibility. He also covers web-based testing and test automation ? and as in all topics covered in the book, Patton knew when to stop. If you want to drill deeper on any of the topics in this book, there are other fine books that can take you there!

I love this book because it is practical, gives a good introduction to software testing, and has some things that even experienced testers will find of interest. This book is also a tool to communicate what testing and QA are all about. This is something that test organizations need as they make the message to management, developers and users. No test library should be without a copy of Software Testing by Ron Patton!

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Check out the index of software testing series posts for more articles.

8 thoughts on “Software Testing Series: Black Box vs White Box Testing

  1. Pingback: Steve Dhalai
  2. Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test and Testing cannot establish that a product functions properly under all conditions but can only establish that it does not function properly under specific conditions.

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